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  1. Cartridge

As above, I have mentioned two types of cartridges, namely MM and MC. The cartridge’s task is to sweep up the small grooves on top, releasing most accurately the vibrations on the grooves. The cartridge consists of two parts, the stylus and the body. The tip of the cartridge is often used with extremely high hardness components and is generally an industrial diamond compared to diamond in jewelry products, which do not have the same purity and clarity as on jewelry but equal hardness. Diamond heads are often sharpened into a very small point, with several different cartridge standards such as Nude, spherical, elliptical, Shibata … each of which will have sharpness as well as contact points into different disc slots. The more sharp and exposed the more expensive, typically fine line and elliptical. When scanning on the disc groove, the movement and movement intensity of the stylus is what is transmitted into the frequency and intensity of the volume, generally the sounds that you hear through vibration of stylus needle first. The stylus drives into the small, slender cantilever, which is a stylus that places the stylus tip and will also vibrate under the needle tip and vibrate the transmission to the inside of the cartridge body.

There are 2 types of cartridges: Moving Magnet (MM) and Moving Coil (MC), although both cartridges use the principle of physical regeneration based on motion in the electromagnetic field. Like the Moving Magnet, the MM needle magnet will be in the cantilever tree moving to regenerate the current while the two coil parts on the cartridge will be fixed. In the case of Moving Coil, the tail of the cantilever will have a coil attached to the tail and the magnet will be fixed.

However, according to folklore, the MM head will have a common needle tip with the ability to easily change the stylus head and the durability is higher than that of the MC, as well as the current intensity is also higher than the MCs. The first MC is more expensive, uses smaller sized diamonds, makes it more difficult to manipulate, does not replace the stylus, is more fragile and the current intensity is also smaller than that of MM so it needs a Step-up transformer or a phono preamplifier circuit separately for MC to increase the amperage to match phonostage. The MC, due to its small needle tip and slim cantilever, is less resonant, responds quickly to the notched lines on the disc groove and less dust trails, so it is more clean, static and clear than when listening to the sound of MM.

The principle of operation of MM and MC is that the reciprocal magnetic field is generated from magnets and small coil rings, which will produce electrical signals with small variations. The current will be amplified and transmitted to the amplifier to output the speaker. In many cases you need to use a phonostage as an intermediate bridge between turntable and amplifier or pre-amp.