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Laquer was too hard to use in actual manufacturing, so a metal casting pattern was made. Initially, the laquer was covered with a layer of good conductive graphite, then silver or nickel plated. Once the plate is thick enough, the wax will be removed, leaving behind a stronger metal mold.

Modern techniques require immersing the disc in a solution of stannous chloride and then spraying it on a layer of silver atoms. Plating plates with conventional techniques are still widely used but do not achieve accurate reverberation.

After the initial silver plating has hardened, a fine copper layer is applied, followed by a stronger, coarser layer of metal, such as steel. Fine metal layer, composed of relatively small metal atoms, 85 particles/inch2 with magnification of 100 times the diameter, and features improved strength and toughness than rough steel particles, easily machined more work on the machine.

When the amount of metal was sufficient to support the silver plates, the laquer was smashed into the mold, leaving a metal cathode, or “mortar”.

The mold is still quite hard so it needs to be cast again before starting to compress the vinyl. The metal dish is referred to as the “mother”, cut from a mortar and then plated again to create another sound called a “stamper.”

Each stamper is attached to a 100 ton hydraulic compressor, basically like a mold and can produce thousands of disks before needing replacement.

Each hot vinyl foil is only about half the area but 3 times thicker than a finished disc, called a biscuit, slides between the two compressor jaws, and 300oF steam is used to soften the material before finishing, and compress Hot vinyl on the final shape while recording. Then the disc is cooled with water, becomes hard, and is labeled, all of which are done automatically.

Next, the discs are angled in a neat circle with an automatic trimmer, after which the discs are carefully checked, both visually and acoustically.

Finally, quality LPs are packed and shipped to independent local music retail stores.

Above is the full progress of making vinyl discs, which are used for vinyl record. As can be seen, it is complicated to create vinyl discs that have such steady production levels and amazingly natural sound quality. Hope you know understand how vinyl discs are made.